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Aspire Research Notes

Living Life on Purpose

1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance, MMWR June 4, 2010: 59 (No. SS-5) pp. 20-21, 99-100. (YRBS indicates that the number of “students who have had intercourse in the past 3 months” (34.2%) is significantly less than number who have “ever had sexual intercourse” (46%).

Standing Strong


1. Abma JC, Martinez GM, Copen CE. Teenagers in the United States: Sexual Activity, Contraceptive Use, and Childbearing. National Survey of Family Growth 2006-2008. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat 23 (30). 2010. p. 54
2. U.S. Teenage Pregnancies, Births, and Abortions: National and State Trends and Trends by Race and Ethnicity. Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005, January, 2010. p. 14.
3. Albert, B. With One Voice: America’s Adults and Teens Sound Off About Teen Pregnancy. Washington, DC: National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, 2004 pp. 32,33. 2007 pp. 2,17,18.
4. Bramlett M.D. and Mosher W.D. Cohabitation, Marriage, Divorce, and Remarriage in the United States. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Statistics 23(22) 2002. p. 4. Robert Rector, and Kirk A. Johnson, Ph.D., The Effects of Marriage and Maternal Education in Reducing Child Poverty, Center for Data Analysis, The Heritage Foundation, Washington D.C., August 2002. pp. 1-10.

Thinking Ahead


1. Hillard Weinstock, Stuart Berman and Willard Cates, Jr. Alan Guttmacher Institute. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Among American Youth: Incidence and Prevalence Estimates, 2000. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health Volume 36, Number 1, January/February 2004. p. 1. Study Summary of Results: Approximately 18.9 million new cases of STD occurred in 2000, of which 9.1 million (48%) were among persons aged 15-24. Average daily cases overall is 51,780.
2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Tracking The Hidden Epidemics 2000: Trends in STDs in the United States, Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2000. pp. 8-24.
3. Workshop Summary: Scientific Evidence On Condom Effectiveness for Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Prevention, June 12-13, 2000, Herndon, VA, National Institutes of Health, July 20, 2001. pp. i, 11.
4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Trends in Reportable Sexually Transmitted Diseases in the United States, 2004, Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, November 2005. pp. 1-5.
5. Columbia University, Dangerous Liaisons: Substance Abuse and Sex, The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, 1999. p. 27.
6. The National Women’s Health Information Center, United States Department of Health & Human Services, Office of Women’s Health, Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Overview, May 2005. p. 1.
7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance, 2008. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, November, 2009. pp. 85-86, 96-97, 106-109, 121-123.
8. Rose M. Kreider, Number, Timing, and Duration of Marriages and Divorces: 2001, Current Population Reports, U.S. Census Bureau: Washington, DC, February 2005. p. 4. (The average age of marriage is 27 for men and 25 for women. Therefore the average age of marriage combined is approximately 26 years old.)
9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV Surveillance Report, 2008; vol. 20. June 2010. pp. 5-16, 77, 81.
10. Abma JC, Martinez GM, Copen CE. Teenagers in the United States: Sexual Activity, Contraceptive Use, and Childbearing, National Survey of Family Growth 2006-2008. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat 23 (30). 2010. pp. 49, 50, 55
11. American Cancer Society, “What are the key statistics for cervical cancer?” October 31, 2005 (Cervical Cancer is in a declining trend. ACS estimates 11,070 cases of cervical cancer and 3,870 deaths from cervical cancer in 2008. Female deaths from AIDS were 4,128 in 2005).
12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Genital HPV Infection - CDC Fact Sheet, Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, August 2006.
13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Genital Herpes - CDC Fact Sheet, Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, January 4, 2008.
14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Report to Congress, Prevention of Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection, Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, January 2004. p. 13
15. Helene D. Gayle, M.D., M.P.H., Director, National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, August 4, 2000.
16. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Divisions of HIV/AIDS Prevention, HIV and Its Transmission, Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, HPV Vaccine Questions and Answers — CDC Fact Sheet, August 2006.
17. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, HPV Vaccine Questions & Answers Fact Sheet, August 2006.
18. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. MMWR June 4, 2010: 59 (No. SS-5) p. 102 (This chart indicates condom usage at last encounter.)
19. Dr. Sara Forhan, Oral Abstract D4a – Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections and Bacterial Vaginosis among(NHANES) Female Adolescents in the United States: Data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2003-2004. 2008 National STD Prevention Conference, Chicago, IL. March 10-13, 2008. pp. 2-3.
20. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Basic Information About HIV and AIDS. http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/basictopics/basic (Accessed June 19, 2010).

Protecting Your Mind


1. Donald F. Roberts, Ph.D., Ulla G. Foehr, M.A., Victoria Rideout, M.A., Kaiser Family Foundation, Generation M: Media in the Lives of 8–18 Year-0lds, March 2005.
 2. Medved, Michael and Diane, Ph.D. Saving Childhood: Protecting Our Children from the National Assault on Innocence, Harper Perennial, New York, NY, p. 19, 1998.
3. Kastleman, Mark. The Drug of the New Millennium: The Science of How Internet Pornography Radically Alters the Human Brain and Body, Granite Publishing and Distribution, LLC, Orem, Utah, pp.173-185, 2001.
4. PBS Documentary. Frontline: The Merchants of Cool, www.pbs.org #FROL6909
5. ABC News: Porn Profits: Corporate America's Secret, May 27, 2004. http://abcnews.go.com/Primetimstory?id=132370&page=1
6. Paul Hitlin and Lee Rainie, Teens, Technology, and School, Pew Internet & American Life Project, August, 2005. p. 7 (K7g).

The Power of Self-Control


1. Compact Oxford English Dictionary of Current English, Oxford University Press 2006.
2. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, 2000, Houghton Mifflin Company.
3. Columbia University, Dangerous Liaisons: Substance Abuse and Sex, The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, 1999. p. 2.
4. Columbia University, National Survey of American Attitudes on Substance Abuse IX: Teen Dating Practices and Sexual Activity, The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, August, 2004. pp. 5-6.

Making a Fresh Start


1. Albert, B. With One Voice: America’s Adults and Teens Sound Off About Teen Pregnancy. Washington, DC: National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, 2007. (Regret for ages 12-14: 67%, ages 12-19: 60%. Year over year, the “regret” statistic for ages 12-19 is consistently in the two-thirds range. 2002: 63%, 2003: 67%, 2004: 66%).
2. Moore KA, et al., A Statistical Portrait of Adolescent Sex, Contraception, and Childbearing, Washington DC: National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, 1998. p. 11 (7.3% non-voluntary or “forced,” + 24.1% unwanted or “pressured” = 31.4% or approximately 1 in 3.)
3. Columbia University, Dangerous Liaisons: Substance Abuse and Sex, The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, 1999. p. 42
4. Jay G. Silverman, Anita Raj, and Karen Clements. Dating Violence and Associated Sexual Risk and Pregnancy Among Adolescent Girls in the United States. Pediatrics Vol. 114 No. 2 August 2004; p. e220.
5. Kerstin Uvnäs-Moberg, M.D., Ph.D., The Oxytocin Factor, Cambridge, MA. DaCapo Press. 2003. Inside cover text. pp. 59, 93, 117-120.